Request The Product List ofAdenylate Cyclase
Adenylyl cyclase (EC 18.104.22.168, adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells. AC converts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which acts as an important second messenger in various signaling cascades. The cAMP produced by AC then serves as a regulatory signal via specific cAMP-binding proteins, either transcription factors, enzymes (e.g., cAMP-dependent kinases), or ion transporters.
There are ten known isoforms of adenylyl cyclases in mammals: ADCY1-10, also sometimes called simply AC1, AC2, etc.
In neurons, calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclases are located next to calcium ion channels for faster reaction to Ca2+ influx; they are suspected of playing an important role in learning processes. This is supported by the fact that adenylyl cyclases are coincidence detectors, meaning that they are activated only by several different signals occurring together. In peripheral cells and tissues adenylyl cyclases appear to form molecular complexes with specific receptors and other signaling proteins in an isoform-specific manner.
Adenylyl cyclase has been implicated in memory formation, functioning as a coincidence detector.